Download Estimating in Heavy Construction Roads Bridges Tunnels Foundations easily in PDF format for free.

There is no up-to-date English language textbook on heavy construction calculation/ estimation, in contrast to building construction. This may be because this type of construction often involves heavy construction machinery from Germany and Asian countries. Therefore, I appreciate that such a textbook for contractors as well as clients has been provided. This book can be used for US heavy construction, as well as heavy construction in Asia and developing countries.

The examples are calculated in euros and can easily be changed into USD. The examples have to be adapted to the local/regional conditions with regard to wages and material costs. The sales tax/value added tax as used also needs to be adapted. The book provides a good basis for estimation because all important cost categories are considered. The risks of different construction contracts are systematically evaluated with regard to risk distribution between owner and contractor. Specific risks, for instance for joint ventures, are also considered.

A systematic scheme for the calculation of interim interest is provided as well. The book differentiates between time-dependent and time-independent costs. This allows one to easily calculate the costs caused by delays. The initial strategy part of the book considers the effect of different levels of capacity utilization and the cost/profit consequences. The calculation/ estimation is not presented as a deterministic process, but the book shows how this depends on strategic considerations, subjective factors and stochastic characteristics.

The book also demonstrates the application of cost estimating software. In contrast to building construction, there are only a few available English books on estimating in heavy construction projects, such as roads, bridges and specialized foundation engineering works for buildings. This book is based on our German estimating book, in which we have collected German examples. These real projects can also be applied to the international market The estimating is based on specific construction methods which are dependent on the boundary conditions, the machinery available and the quality and training of personnel. Be aware that estimating is always a stochastic process and cannot deliver a deterministic result.

Reliable estimating is not only important for a contractor but also for a professional client who wants to have a rough overview of his cost situation, especially in civil engineering and underground construction. This is expensive, complicated work and one cannot simply measure square or cubic meters of living space as in standardized building engineering. One only has to think of related significant cost overruns in a few recent large-scale projects to understand the need for a publication written exclusively for heavy construction estimating.

We would especially like to thank all contributing heavy contractors such as Strabag Großprojekte GmbH, VINCI, Heijmans Oevermann GmbH, BAUER AG and Matthäi Bauunternehmen GmbH & Co. KG for their support. It is questionable whether a typical construction company can aim to make its sales entirely in niches. One does certainly strive strategically to save a certain share of revenue from the intense price competition. In many

cases a price war cannot be avoided. Cost-effective competitiveness can only be achieved through rationalization, utilization of the learning effect, and skillful procurement management (of construction materials and subcontractor services).