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The growing need for this book "Rock Mass Classifications - A Practical Approach in Civil Engineering" has been the authors' motivation for many years. Many questions agitated our minds - Is Classification reasonably reliable? Can it be successful in the crisis management of geohazards? Can a single Classification system be general for all rock structures? Is Classification a scientific approach? Laborious field research was needed to find answers to these vital questions.




By God's grace, scientists of the Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), University of Roorkee (UOR), Central Soil and Material Research Station (CSMRS), U. P. Irrigation Research Institute (UPIRI), and Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) came together. The god gifted ideas and the reliable field data made our task of interpretation less tortuous. Consequently, several improvements in correlations have been possible and thereby practical doubts were cleared.




Then followed the consultancy works in above institutions, the success of which further boosted our morale. Finally, the research work was systematicaly compiled into this book in order to generate more confidence and interest among civil, mining and petroleum engineers and geologists. Research experience suggests that many classification approaches are scientific. Nevertheless, the scientific spirit of prediction, check and cross-check should be kept alive.




Hence, many alternative classification systems have been presented for a particular rock structure. The suggested correlations in this book may be used in feasibility designs of major projects. For final designs, rational approaches are recommended. In the design of minor projects, field correlations may be used. The notation for uniaxial compressive strength of rock material is qc and cy c in this book. Rational approaches are becoming popular in consultancy on major projects.




Our goal should be to develop a reliable engineering strategy/solution for geological problems and not rigorous analysis. This should remove the prevailing dissatisfaction present in the minds of designers. Thus, computer modelling may be the future trend of research at this point of time. It appears that field testing and monitoring may always be the key approach in Rock Engineering Projects. All practical knowledge has been gained from interpretations of field observations.




Himalaya provides the best field laboratory to learn Rock Mechanics and Engineering Geology because of its complex geological problems. Further, the hypnotic charm of upper Himalaya is very healing especially to concerned engineers and geologists. Natural oxygenation processes exist on the hill tracks which charge our whole nervous system and give a marvellous feeling of energy and inner healing.




So working in majestic Himalaya is a twin boon. The authors foremost wish is to express their deep gratitude to Professor Charles Fairhurst, University of Minnesota, Dr. N. Barton, NGI, Professor J. A. Hudson, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, Professor E. Hock, International Consulting Engineer, Professor J. J. K. Daemen, University of Nevada, Dr. E. Grimstad, NGI, Professor G. N. Pandey, University of Swansea, Professor J. Nedoma, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic.




Professor V. D. Choubey, Regional Engineering College, Hamirpur, Dr. B. Singh, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Professor B. B. Dhar, BHU, Dr. T. N. Singh, CMRI, Dr. N. M. Raju, National Institute of Rock Mechanics, Kolar, Dr. A. K. Dube, CMRI, Dr. J. L. Jethwa, CMRI, Dr. V. M. Sharma, AYES, Professor Gopal Ranjan, UOR, Professor P. K. Jain, UOR, Dr. M. N. Viladkar, UOR, Dr. A. K. Dhawan, CSMRS, Dr. V. K. Mehrotra, UPIRI, Dr. Subhash Mitra, UPIRI, Mr N. K. Samadhiya, UOR and Mr. H. S. Niranjan.

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