Welding Equipments

The equipments used in welding are as follows:

  1. Gas cylinder
  2. Gas regulator
  3. Hose-pipe
  4. Welding goggles
  5. Welding Helmet
  6. Handy gloves
  7. Anvil
  8. Cylinder trolly
  9. Apron
  10. Welding torch

#1 Gas Cylinder

Welding gas cylinders are made with thick steel sheets as they have to bear high gas pressure. Manufacturers supply gas-filled cylinders to the users. Generally, oxygen and acetylene gas cylinders are used for gas welding purposes. The two gases are supplied in separate cylinders.

1. Oxygen Cylinder

Oxygen gas can be stored in a cylinder for a long time. The temperature of the cylinder remains 70° Fahrenheit and the gas pressure is kept at about 2200 pounds per square inch.

The Oxygen cylinder is colored to black and its valve has right-handed threads. These two points are useful in the identification of oxygen cylinders.

2. Acetylene Cylinder

The acetylene cylinder contains acetylene gas in liquid form. The temperature of the cylinder remains 70° Fahrenheit and the gas pressure is kept at about 250 pounds per square inch.

Before filling the gas, some quality of dry porous material (charcoal) and then acetone is filled in the cylinder. Now, acetylene gas is filled in the cylinder at about 250 pounds per square inch pressure and finally, the cylinder is rotated for some time.

The acetylene cylinder is colored to dark red and its valve has left-handed threads; These two points are useful in the identification of acetylene cylinders. There are also two safety valves that are mounted at the bottom of the cylinder.

Both cylinders are provided with safety caps. Acetylene cylinders should not be used in a lying position.

#2 Gas Regulator

For the welding process, the oxygen and acetylene gases reach the welding torch through gas regulators. There are two main functions of a gas regulator:

  1. To maintain necessary gas pressure during the course of welding.
  2. To supply the gas to the welding torch at a low pressure. The regulator’s body is generally made of brass metal.

The gas regulator is available in two types.

1. Single Stage Regulator

It mainly consists of diaphragm, spring, control-valve, body, pressure gauge, pressure adjusting screw.

This type of regulator has two ports; (i) Inlet – through which the gas at high pressure enters the regulator from the cylinder, (ii) outlet – through which the gas at low pressure is pulled to the welding torch through the hose pipe.

The gas enters the regulator under high pressure through the inlet and exerts pressure on the diaphragm. The diaphragm is supported by a spring which is also used as a pressure adjusting device with the help of a screw.

The regulator valve and diaphragm reduce the gas pressure and supply the same to the welding torch through the hose pipe from the outlet.

2. Double Stage Regulator

In this type of regulator, the pressure of the gas is reduced from high to low in two steps. The device consists of two gas chambers i.e., the main chamber and the auxiliary chamber. The device has two springs and two diaphragms.

The gas enters the main chamber and its pressure is reduced to some extent. The gas then enters the auxiliary chamber from the main chamber at reduced pressure. Here, the gas pressure is further reduced and the same working pressure is carried through the hose pipe to the welding torch.

#3 Hose Pipe

The hosepipe is the medium through which gas is supplied from the regulator to the welding torch. Separate hose pipes are used for oxygen and acetylene gases.

These are made of good quality rubber and are fitted with the help of clamps in their respective regulators and welding torches. Typically, a black or blue pipe is used for oxygen gas while a red pipe is used for acetylene gas.

#4 Welding Goggles

Goggles are used for the protection of eyes against any possible bad effect of the gas flame. Green or blue glasses are used in the goggles which are capable to protect the eyes from ultraviolet and infra-red radiation of the high-temperature gas flame.

#5 Welding Helmet

It is an essential type of welding equipment that is considered the most important piece of personal protective equipment that a welder should have. This helmet not only protects the eyes and skin from serious sparks, but also from potentially vision-damaging ultraviolet and infrared rays released by arcs.

#6 Handy Gloves

Welding gloves are tools that protect a welder’s hands from the dangers of welding. Leather or asbestos gloves are used for the protection of hands against any possible burn during welding.

These gloves allow the operator to be protected from electric shock, extreme heat, and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and also provide abrasion resistance and increased grip.

#7 Anvil

An anvil is consisting of a strong metal (usually forged or cast steel) with a flattened top surface upon which another object strikes. An anvil is used for hammering a hot job as required. It is made of steel so as to have sufficient toughness, see in the figure. The anvil is used as a forging tool in most cases.

#8 Cylinder Trolly

A cylinder trolly is very helpful for conveying the two gas cylinders from one place to another for gas welding purposes.

#9 Apron

A leather apron is very useful equipment for protecting a welder’s clothing against sparks and red-hot particles. It is usually tied to the chest portion of the body.

#10 Welding Torch

It is also known as a blow-pipe. The instrument is meant for producing the oxygen-acetylene flame. It is provided with two gas adjusting knobs (one for each gas). The desired type of flame can be produced by adjusting the two knobs. Two hose pipes are clamped on the two inlets of the instrument.

Gases are mixed in the mixing chambers and then the mixture comes out of the welding torch through its nozzle or tip where it is converted into flame with the help of a spark lighter. The nozzle or tip is made to bear the high temperatures.

Nozzle’s size depends on the size of its hole and they are replaceable. The size is marked on the nozzle which indicates the thickness of the metallic sheets to be welded with that nozzle. There are two main types of welding torches.

1. Low Pressure Welding Torch

In this type of torch, the pressure of oxygen gas is kept at about 10 to 40 pounds per square inch, while the pressure of acetylene gas is kept at about 1 to 2 pounds per square inch. The tip of this type of torch can only be replaced together with its neck.

2. Medium Pressure Welding Torch

In this type of torch, the pressure of the oxygen is kept at about 1 to 24 pounds per square inch, while the pressure of the acetylene is kept at about 1 to 15 pounds per square inch. The tip of this type of welding torch can be replaced without the replacement of its neck.

Wrapping It Up

As we discussed above, welders need these precise welding tools and equipments to have better control over the work. After reading this, you must have got an idea about how to use and when to use them.  If you have any queries regarding this topic then feel free to ask in the comment section.