advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development volume 1pdf

Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of direct injection internal combustion engines. It may have been by coincidence that direct injection technology was developed and applied almost simultaneously to spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines and light-duty diesel engines in the mid-1990s, but the direct injection technology had been adopted in both engines for the same reason – to increase the efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines for automotive applications while improving their performance.

However, the route to growth and market penetration hasproved more haphazard in the case of direct injection SI engines, owing to relatively high cost, lower than expected gains in fuel economy and full load performance, their complexity and the requirement for a lean NOx aftertreatment system. In comparison, the high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine has achieved remarkable commercial success due to its excellent fuel economy and good performance characteristics.

With heightened concern over the greenhouse gas effect, imminent CO2 emission targets in Europe and Japan, and new fleet vehicle fuel consumption requirements in the US, direct injection gasoline engines are staging a comeback, mainly through downsized boosted operations in the short term
and stratified charge and/or controlled autoignited combustion in the medium term. In the meantime, HSDI and heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines are facing the challenge of meeting ever more stringent emission legislation across the globe, but without deteriorating fuel economy.

It is therefore timely that the state of the art with respect to current direct injection combustion engines and their development needs should be presented and discussed in a single book so that researchers and practising engineers can ‘stand on the shoulders of giants’ in developing future high-efficiency and low-emission combustion engines. One particular strength of this book is its wide-ranging but balanced coverage of the fundamental understanding and applied technologies involved in DI combustion engines and the complementary contributions by both practising engineers and academic researchers.

This book is divided into two volumes, the first dealing with gasoline and gas engines, and the second discussing diesel engines.In Volume 1, following an overview of the history and principles of high-efficiency direct injection gasoline engines, approaches to achieving better fuel economy from
such engines are presented.

These include a discussion on stratified charge combustion for part-load operations in Chapter 2, downsized engines through turbocharging in Chapter 3, lean-boost and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) boost for further engine downsizing in Chapters 4 and 5, and autoignition combustion for simultaneous reduction in NO and fuel consumption in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 illustrates the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design and optimisation of direct injection gasoline engines. Chapter 8 reviews direct injection compressed natural gas (CNG) engines that have been developed for commercial vehicles. Chapter 9 has been written to reflect the experience of the world’s most successful bio-fuel market in Brazil.