advanced thermodynamics for engineers second edition pdf
The other dilemma in developing an advanced level text is whether to introduce a significant amount of statistical thermodynamics; since this subject is related to the particulate nature of matter, and most engineers deal with systems far from regions where molecular motion dominates the processes, the majority of the book is based on equilibrium thermodynamics; which concentrates on the macroscopic nature of systems. A few examples of statistical thermodynamics are introduced to demonstrate certain forms of behaviour, but a full understanding of the subject is not a requirement of the text.
The book contains XX chapters and while this might seem an excessive number, these are of a size
where they can be readily incorporated into a degree course with a modular structure. Many such
courses will be based on 2 h lecturing per week, and this means that most of the chapters can be presented in a single week. Worked examples are included in most of the chapters to illustrate the concepts being propounded, and the chapters are followed by exercises. Some of these have been
developed from texts which are now not available (e.g. Benson, Haywood) and others are based on
Solutions are provided for all the questions. The properties of gases have been derived from polynomial coefficients published by Benson: All the parameters quoted have been evaluated by the author using these coefficients, and equations published in the text: this means that all the values are self-consistent, which is not the case in all texts. Some of the combustion questions have been solved using computer programs developed at UMIST, and these are all based on these gas property polynomials. If the reader uses other data, e.g. JANAF tables, the solutions obtained might differ slightly from those quoted.
Engineering thermodynamics is basically equilibrium thermodynamics although for the first two
years of the conventional undergraduate course these words are used but not often defined. Much of the thermodynamics done in the early years of a course also relies heavily on reversibility, without explicit consideration of the effects of irreversibility. Yet, if the performance of thermodynamic devices is to be improved, it is the irreversibility which must be tackled. This book introduces the effects of irreversibility through considerations of availability (exergy), and the concept of the endoreversible engine.
The thermal efficiency is related to that of an ideal cycle by the rational efficiency – to demonstrate how closely the performance of an engine approaches that of a reversible one. It is also shown that the Carnot efficiency is a very artificial yardstick against which to compare real engines: the internal and external reversibilities imposed by the cycle mean that it produces zero power at the maximum achievable efficiency. The approach by Curzon and Ahlborn to define the efficiency of an endoreversible engine producing maximum power output is introduced: this shows the effect of external irreversibility. This analysis also introduces the concept of entropy generation in a manner readily understandable by the engineer; this concept is the cornerstone of the theories of irreversible thermodynamics which are at the end of the text.