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advances in renewable energies and power technologies volume 1 solar and wind energies pdf

The exponential growth of industrialization and economic development increases
the demand to energy [1]. Energy resources are classified into three categories: the
fossil fuels, the renewable resources, and the nuclear resources [2]. While nuclear
energy produces toxic substances that threat the human health and the environment
and requires the use of huge quantity of water [3], the fossil fuels are limited, their
price is variable, and they generate emissions, which cause global warming and
climate change [4]. This situation is the main driving force behind the use of
renewable energy sources (RESs) [5].

In fact, RESs can be defined as clean sources
of energy that minimizes environmental impacts, produces minimum or zero
secondary wastes, and is sustainable based on the energetic, economic, and social
needs [6]. Indeed, the RES is characterized by the diversity in energy supply
options [7], less dependence on fossil fuels [8], the increase in net employment,
the creation of export markets [9], the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions,
and climate change [10,11]. RESs include, among others, solar, wind, geothermal,
biomass, hydropower, and marine energies [12,13].

According to the report of the International Energy Agency (IEA) of 2016, RESs
account for a rising share of the world’s total electricity supply, and they are the
fastest-growing source of electricity generation in the IEO2016 [9]. Indeed, the total
generation of electricity from renewable resources increases by 2.9%/year, as the
renewable share of world electricity generation grows from 22% in 2012 to 29%
in 2040 [9].

Electricity generation from nonhydropower renewables is the predominant source of the increase, rising by an average of 5.7%/year and outpacing increases in natural gas (2.7%/year), nuclear (2.4%/year), and coal (0.8%/year) [9]. The report of IEA confirmed that solar energy is the world’s fastest-growing form of renewable energy, with net solar generation increasing by an average of 8.3%/year [9]. Among the 5.9 trillion kWh of new renewable generation added over the projection period, hydroelectric and wind each account for 1.9 trillion kWh (33%), solar
energy for 859 billion kWh (15%), and other renewables (mostly biomass and
waste) for 856 billion kWh (14%) [9]