alternative energy systems and applications second edition pdf
Since the first edition was written (2007–2009), many changes in the energy posture of the USA
as well as the rest of the world have taken place. The second edition has been significantly
influenced by these changes. Two chapters have been added: one addressing electric and hybrid
vehicles (Chapter 16) and one examining enhanced oil and gas recovery (via hydraulic
fracturing) and its ramifications (Chapter 17). All of the chapters have been revised and
modernized and have had, in many instances, substantial additions.
When possible, quantitative information has been updated to the current data available. These data include documented energy usages, energy resource/usages projections, and energy systems’ and components’ performance metrics and availability. The number of web sites cited in the second edition is substantially greaterthan in the first edition. All cited web sites were active as of December 2016. However, web sites are updated (and renamed) frequently, but using a search engine with a reasonably complete descriptor will usually redirect to an appropriate site.
Since the first edition, useful quantitative information in many company and government agency web sites has been reduced in favor of more words, pictures and illustrations. If sufficient quantitative information is not available on a company/agency web site, queries to that company/agency will often result in securing such metrics.
The theme of the first edition, namely alternative energy sources and the alternative use of
existing energy sources, has been continued in the second. Chapter 16, Transportation and
Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, was added because electric and hybrid vehicles offer alternatives
and efficiency enhancements to conventional internal combustion engine powered vehicles.
Chapter 17, Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil, Natural Gas, and the New Reality, was added because
enhanced oil and gas recovery has dramatically shifted the energy posture/outlook of many
countries. Every topic has been impacted by advances in technology and changes in emphasis.
Examples include consideration of new installed hydroelectric capacity, significant increase in
wind energy installed capacity, backlog for combustion turbine orders, growth in solar thermal
usage, recognition of passive solar advantages, decreasing photovoltaic cell cost per kilowatt
enhancing economic attractiveness, advances in fuel cell commercialization, combined heat and
power industrial/commercial market penetration, biofuels focus areas diversity, geothermal
energy successes and advances, ocean energy potential recognition, renewed interest in nuclear
power, hybrid/electric vehicle sales up, and hydraulic fracturing impacts.
Since the first edition, the energy concerns of the USA have to some extent diminished, but technically, politically, environmentally, and economically, energy issues, including climate change, have become more divisive. Indeed, in the year 2000 few predicted that the USA would dramatically reduce its energy imports and, perhaps, even become an energy exporting nation.