Download Automobile Engineering Lab Manual For B. E. Mechanical by D. S. Dabhade easily in PDF format for free.

Both the front drive and rear drive differential have the same job to do. They also have many of the same parts. The basic difference is the way in which engine torque is delivered to the differential assembly. Power enters the rear axle assembly from the final drive which consists of bevel pinion connected through a rear universal yoke to the propeller shaft. The bevel pinion is meshed with the crown wheel, which is bolted to the case. This arrangement allows the bevel pinion to turn the crown wheel.

As the crown wheel turns, the case attached to it also turns. A shaft through the case also goes through the middle of two small pinion gears. As the case turns, this shaft turns the small pinion gears, each of which meshes with a side gear. Each side gear is attached to a shaft called an axle, which on a rear drive system runs through housing to one of the rear wheels. When the automobile is travelling in a straight line, the power flow through the system is fairly simple. The crown wheel turns the case.

The case, through its shaft and pinion gears, turns each of the side gears at the same speed. The axles or drive shafts turn the drive wheels, which drive the vehicle. When the vehicle makes a turn, however, the power flow becomes more complicated. If the automobile is making a left turn, the left drive wheel must go through a sharper corner or travel through a shorter distance than the right drive wheel. The crown wheel turns the case. Since the left wheel is going through a sharp corner, the left axle is slowed or stopped momentarily.

The pinion gears in the case still turn with the case but they also rotate on the case shaft. Thus they can walk around the slowed or stopped left side gear and provide all the power to the right side gear so the right wheel will turn faster than the left wheel. During a right turn there is more resistance on the right axle, because the right wheel must turn through a sharper corner than the left. The pinions in the case walk around the right side gear and drive the left axle gear.

The working principle of clutch is based on friction .When the two friction surfaces re brought in contact with each other and pressed they are united due to friction between them .If now one is resolved ,the other will also resolve. One surface is considered as a driving member and other as driven member. The driving member is kept rotating .When the driven member is brought in contact with the driving member, it is also starts rotating .When the driven member is separated from the driving member, and it stops revolving.

The driving member of clutch is the flywheel mounted on crankshaft, the driven member is a pressure plate mounted on the transmission shaft. This is the common type of clutch used in automobile. It consists of two member flywheel and pressure plate. The flywheel is mounted on engine crankshaft and rotates with it. The pressure plate is bolted to the flywheel through clutch springs and is free to slide on the clutch shaft when the clutch pedal is operated.