Electronic Principles, eighth edition, continues its tradition as a clearly explained, in-depth introduction to electronic semiconductor devices and circuits. This textbook is intended for students who are taking their fi rst course in linear electronics. The prerequisites are a dc/ac circuits course, algebra, and some trigonometry. Electronic Principles provides essential understanding of semiconductor device characteristics, testing, and the practical circuits in which they are found.

The text provides clearly explained concepts—written in an easy-to-read conversational style—establishing the foundation needed to understand the operation and troubleshooting of electronic systems. Practical circuit examples, applications, and troubleshooting exercises are found throughout the chapters. The production of Electronic Principles, eighth edition, involves the combined effort of a team of professionals. Thank you to everyone at McGraw-Hill Higher Education who contributed to this edition, especially Raghu Srinivasan, Vincent Bradshaw, Jessica Portz, and Vivek Khandelwal.

Special thanks go out to Pat Hoppe whose insights and tremendous work on the Multisim fi les has been a signifi cant contribution to this textbook. Thanks to everyone whose comments and suggestions were extremely valuable in the development of this edition. This includes those who took the time to respond to surveys prior to manuscript development and those who carefully reviewed the revised material. Every survey and review were carefully examined and have contributed greatly to this edition. In this edition, valuable input was obtained from electronics instructors from across the country and international reviewers.

Also, reviews and input from electronics certifi cation organizations, including CertTEC, ETA International, ISCET, and NCEE, were very benefi cial. Here is a list of the reviewers who helped make this edition comprehensive and relevant.  This important chapter serves as a framework for the rest of the textbook. The topics in this chapter include formulas, voltage sources, current sources, two circuit theorems, and troubleshooting. Although some of the discussion will be review, you will fi nd new ideas, such as circuit approximations, that can make it easier for you to understand semiconductor devices.

Did you know that 1 foot of AWG 22 wire that is 1 inch from a chassis has a resistance of 0.016 V, an inductance of 0.24 H, and a capacitance of 3.3 pF? If we had to include the effects of resistance, inductance, and capacitance in every calculation for current, we would spend too much time on calculations. This is why everybody ignores the resistance, inductance, and capacitance of connecting wires in most situations. The ideal approximation, sometimes called the fi rst approximation, is the simplest equivalent circuit for a device. For instance, the ideal approximation of a piece of wire is a conductor of zero resistance.

This ideal approximation is adequate for everyday electronics work. The exception occurs at higher frequencies, where you have to consider the inductance and capacitance of the wire. Suppose 1 inch of wire has an inductance of 0.24 H and a capacitance of 3.3 pF. At 10 MHz, the inductive reactance is 15.1 V, and the capacitive reactance is 4.82 kV. As you see, a circuit designer can no longer idealize a piece of wire. Depending on the rest of the circuit, the inductance and capacitive reactances of a connecting wire may be important. As a guideline, we can idealize a piece of wire at frequencies under 1 MHz.