Skip to content


Mukund R. Patel
Boca Raton London New York Singapore
A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the
Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc.
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
Kings Point, New York, U.S.A.

Cover photo: Original land use continues in a wind farm in Germany.

(With permission from Vestas Wind
Systems, Denmark.)
The wind and photovoltaic power technologies are rapidly evolving.

Although reasonable care has been taken
in preparing this book, neither the author nor the publisher assumes responsibility for any consequences of using
the information.

The diagrams disclosed herein are for illustration purposes only and may be covered by patents

Dedicated to my mother, Shakariba,
who practiced ingenuity, and to my children,
Ketan, Bina, and Vijal,
who flattered me by becoming engineers.

The Author
Mukund R. Patel, Ph.D., P.E., is a research engineer, consultant, and educator with
40 years of hands-on involvement in designing and developing state-of-the-art electrical power equipment and systems.

He has served as principal engineer at the
General Electric Company in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; fellow engineer at the
Westinghouse Research & Development Center in Pittsburgh; senior staff engineer
at Lockheed Martin Corporation in Princeton, New Jersey; development manager at
Bharat Bijlee Limited, in Bombay, and as 3M Distinguished Visiting Professor at
the University of Minnesota, Duluth.

Presently, he is a professor of engineering at
the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York, and an associate
editor of Solar Energy Journal published by the International Solar Energy Society.
Dr. Patel obtained his Ph.D.

degree in electric power engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; M.S. in engineering management from
the University of Pittsburgh; M.E. in electrical machine design from Gujarat University; and B.E. from Sardar Patel University, Vallabha Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India.
He is a fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (U.K.), associate fellow
of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, a senior member of the
IEEE, a registered professional engineer in Pennsylvania, and a member of Eta
Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi, and Omega Rho.

Any book of this nature on emerging technologies such as wind and photovoltaic
power systems cannot possibly be written without help from many sources.

I have been extremely fortunate to receive full support from many organizations and individuals in the field. They not only encouraged me to write on this timely subject
but also provided valuable suggestions and comments during the development of
the book.
For this second edition, I am grateful to Prof. Jose Femenia, head of the engineering department; Dr. Warren Mazek, Dean; and Vice Admiral Joseph Stewart,
Superintendent, of the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, New York, for
supporting my research and publications, including a sabbatical leave for writing
this book.

I have benefited from the midshipmen at the academy who were taking
this course and contributing to my learning as well.